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Rhine Falls

Waterfalls in Laufen
Rhine Falls
Rhine Falls — © Fabian Kreiser / 500px
You can buy this photo on Source.

The Rhine Falls (Rheinfall in German) are the largest plain waterfalls in Europe.

The falls are located on the High Rhine between the municipalities of Neuhausen am Rheinfall and Laufen-Uhwiesen, near the town of Schaffhausen in northern Switzerland, between the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zürich. They are 150 m (450 ft) wide and 23 m (75 ft) high. In the winter months, the average water flow is 250 m³/s, while in the summer, the average water flow is 700 m³/s. The highest flow ever measured was 1,250 m³/s in 1965; and the lowest, 95 m³/s in 1921.

The falls cannot be climbed by fish, except by eels that are able to worm their way up over the rocks.

Geology

The Rhine Falls were formed in the last ice age, approximately 14,000 to 17,000 years ago, by erosion- resistant rocks narrowing the riverbed. The first glacial advances created today's landforms approximately 500,000 years ago. Up to the end of the Wolstonian Stage approximately 132,000 years ago, the Rhine flowed westwards from Schaffhausen past Klettgau. This earlier riverbed later filled up with gravel.

About 132,000 years ago the course of the river changed southwards at Schaffhausen and formed a new channel, which also filled up with gravel. Part of the Rhine today includes this ancient riverbed.

During the Würm glaciation, the Rhine was pushed far to the south to its present course, over a hard Late Jurassic limestone bed. As the river flowed over both the hard limestone and the easily-eroded gravel from previous glaciations, the current waterfall formed about 14,000 to 17,000 years ago. The Rheinfallfelsen, a large rock, is the remnant of the original limestone cliff flanking the former channel. The rock has eroded very little over the years because not too much sediment comes down the Rhine from Lake Constance.

Economics

The north side of the falls is a millsite. In the 17th century a blast furnace for smelting iron ore found in the limestone was built. It was in operation until the first half of the 19th century.

In 1887 the ironworks applied for permission to divert between one fifth to one half of the river's flow for electricity generation. The Swiss Alpine Club, the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft (a nature group) and several scientific societies opposed the plan.

In 1913 an international competition was held for the best plan for a shipping route between Basel and Lake Constance.

In 1919, a company wanting to build power stations in northern Switzerland were told that any such station at the Rhine Falls "must serve the economic interest of the public".

In 1944, the Swiss Council of States granted permission to build the proposed power station. The permission was to become effective on 1 February 1948, with construction to begin in 1952. But in 1951, the Neuen Helvetischen Gesellschaft (New Swiss Society), under the leadership of Emil Egli, got 150,000 Swiss citizens to sign a petition protesting the project; among the signatories were 49 famous citizens, including Hermann Hesse and Carl Jacob Burckhardt. The petition not only scuttled the power station project, but effectively prevented all future hydropower and navigation engineering projects on the upper Rhine to the present day.

Today, the falls are still under consideration for hydropower projects, although there is little water in the Rhine to generate a significant amount of power. The greatest economic value of the falls is as a tourist attraction.

Tourism

The nearest community is Neuhausen am Rheinfall, where tourists can also view the Schloss Wörth castle. Boat trips can be taken up the Rhine to the falls and the Rheinfallfelsen. There are also viewing platforms with a spectacular view of the falls built on both sides of the Rhine. These are reached via steep and narrow stairs. Guided tours of various lengths start from Schloss Laufen in Laufen on the Zürich side of the falls - a youth hostel is also located in Laufen. Various restaurants are located in Schloss Laufen, Schloss Wörth and the Rheinfall park.

The Rhine Falls are easily accessible by car, bicycle and public transport (the DB-Bahnhof "Neuhausen Bad Bf" and SBB-Bahnstation "Schloss Laufen am Rheinfall" railway stations). Large pay-parking lots are located in Neuhausen and Laufen.

Tourists have been awed by the Rhine Falls for centuries. In the 19th century, the painter J. M. W. Turner made several studies and larger paintings of the falls , and the lyrical poet Eduard Mörike wrote of the falls:

Halte dein Herz, o Wanderer, fest in gewaltigen Händen! Mir entstürzte vor Lust zitternd das meinige fast. Rastlos donnernde Massen auf donnernde Massen geworfen, Ohr und Auge, wohin retten sie sich im Tumult?

(Hold your heart, oh traveller, tightly in mighty hands! Mine nearly descended, shivering with pleasure. Restless thundering masses thrown upon masses, ear and eye, whither can they save themselves in such an uproar?)

References

External links

Tips & Hints

Daniel Bachmann
Daniel Bachmann 16 February 2013
7
Love Switzerland, despite being also a world citizen!
Alessia Kours
Alessia Kours 1 July 2012
7
A real "must see"! I am deeply impressed by the power of water and the beauty of Rhein and Switzerland in general...
Daniil Andrianov
Daniil Andrianov 19 June 2013
3
The Rhine Falls is the largest plain waterfall in Europe. The falls are located on the Upper Rhine between the municipalities of Neuhausen am Rheinfall and Laufen-Uhwiesen.
Toivo I
Toivo I 19 October 2012
3
There's no need to pay 5CHF , just walk around and enjoy the views
Martina
Martina 11 February 2014
2
Really great place. You should take a boat to the center of falls.
Best Western Central Europe
Best Western Central Europe 28 January 2014
2
A real "must see"! Be impressed by the power of water and the beauty of Rhein!
Amancio Bouza
Amancio Bouza 8 May 2016
1
Take the boat trip to the center rock. The experience is breath taking!
Amit Gaharwar
Amit Gaharwar 28 September 2015
1
Awesome in Autumn as well. Visit from north side via Neuhausen to walk down to the falls. Take boat tour 1 to central rock. Basel to Schaffhausen via BW ticket and the local train to Neuhausen.
Caroline
Caroline 24 September 2013
1
Europe's largest waterfall.
Francesco Baschieri
Francesco Baschieri 5 August 2013
1
Wonderful natural place! The best boat tour is the nr.1, the one going on the rock in the middle of the falls!!
Pierrot Restaurant
Pierrot Restaurant 7 June 2012
1
When you go to see this marvelous waterfalls, come to visit us, too! We are at about 10 min distance. You will eat.... goodies! Don't trust us, come and see yourself! We'll wait for you! :)
Steve Rubin
Steve Rubin 25 July 2010
1
Entrance SFR5/adults. Crowded with Tourists.. Of course.
Joel Savitzky
Joel Savitzky 4 February 2012
4
Amazing panorama
Juriy 🎧 Kolomiyets
Juriy 🎧 Kolomiyets 8 May 2013
2
К водопаду плывут два кораблика. Рекомендую плыть на двух.
Nick S.
Nick S. 10 August 2015
1
Wenn man einen Tag erwischt an dem es nicht so überlaufen ist, ein super Erlebnis!
Nika G
Nika G 5 August 2015
1
Очень красивое место!👍❤️
Simon Manchmalderfieber
Simon Manchmalderfieber 2 March 2015
1
Hier muss man gewesen sein! Einfach atemberaubend und schön hier zu sein. Ich empfehle eine Bootsfahrt zum Stein.
Hoo.dicted
Hoo.dicted 8 September 2014
1
Unternehme eine Schiffrundfahrt und betrachte den Rheinfall aus nächster Nähe.
Fran Berenguer
Fran Berenguer 22 August 2013
1
Es un sitio espectacular para ir a comer de picnic y luego pasear por todo el lateral de la cascada. Se pueden coger barcos para llegar hasta donde rompe el agua.
Kirill Snezhko
Kirill Snezhko 15 February 2013
1
Ничего круче не видел!
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Open hours?
Mon-Tue
11:00 AM–5:00 PM
Wed
11:00 AM–6:00 PM
Thu-Fri
10:00 AM–6:00 PM
Sat
10:00 AM–7:00 PM
Contact
+41 52 632 40 20
Location
Laufengasse 18, 8212 Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Switzerland
Map
Distances
Casablanca2100 km
Neuhausen am Rheinfall600 m
Schaffhausen2.8 km
Munich227 km
Milan251 km
Turin299 km