Sign in | Join now

English

Mount Everest

Sacred mountains in Lobuje
Mount Everest
Mount Everest — Available Light Images
Buy this photo on Source now!
All photos viewed on this website are copyrighted by their owners. Clicking on the author name above will take you to the original page for given photo where you can check the copyright information from the author.
Some photos are provided via Flickr, 500px, Instagram and other open APIs in full compliance with the appropriate Terms & Conditions.

Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (नेपाली. सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in བོད་ཡིག. ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ, in Chinese: 珠穆朗玛峰 Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng) is the highest mountain on Earth, as measured by the height above sea level of its summit, Шаблон:Convert. The mountain, which is part of the Himalaya range in High Asia, is located on the border between Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal, and Tibet, China.

]] In 1856, the Great Trigonometric Survey of India established the first published height of Everest at Шаблон:Convert, although at the time Everest was known as Peak XV. In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon recommendation of Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India at the time. Waugh was unable to propose an established local name because Nepal and Tibet were closed to foreigners at the time, although Chomolungma had been in common use by Tibetans for centuries.

The highest mountain in the world attracts climbers of all levels, from well experienced mountaineers to novice climbers willing to pay substantial sums to professional mountain guides to complete a successful climb. The mountain, while not posing substantial technical climbing difficulty on the standard route (other eight-thousanders such as K2 or Nanga Parbat are much more difficult), still has many inherent dangers such as altitude sickness, weather and wind. By the end of the 2008 climbing season, there had been 4,102 ascents to the summit by about 2,700 individuals. Climbers are a significant source of tourist revenue for Nepal, whose government also requires all prospective climbers to obtain an expensive permit, costing up to US$25,000 per person. Everest has claimed 210 lives, including eight who perished during a 1996 storm high on the mountain. Conditions are so difficult in the death zone that most corpses have been left where they fell. Some of them are visible from standard climbing routes.

Identifying the highest mountain

In 1808, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to determine the location and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams gradually moved northward using giant 1100 pound (500 kg) theodolites (each requiring 12 men to carry) to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country because of suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down.

The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult owing to torrential rains and malaria — three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire owing to failing health.

Nonetheless, in 1847, the British pressed on and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to Шаблон:Convert away. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made a number of observations from Sawajpore station located in the eastern end of the Himalayas. At the time, Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, and with interest he noted a peak beyond it, some Шаблон:Convert away. John Armstrong, one of Waugh's officials, also saw the peak from a location further west and called it peak 'b'. Waugh would later write that the observations indicated that peak 'b' was higher than Kangchenjunga, but given the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak 'b', but clouds thwarted all attempts.

In 1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area. Nicolson was able to make two observations from Jirol, Шаблон:Convert away. Nicolson then took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being Шаблон:Convert away from the peak.

Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations. His raw data gave an average height of Шаблон:Convert for peak 'b', but this did not take into account light refraction which distorts heights. The number clearly indicated, however, that peak 'b' was higher than Kangchenjunga. Unfortunately, Nicolson came down with malaria and was forced to return home, calculations unfinished. Michael Hennessy, one of Waugh's assistants, had begun designating peaks based on Roman Numerals, with Kangchenjunga named Peak IX, while peak 'b' now became known as Peak XV.

In 1852, stationed at the survey's headquarters in Dehradun, Radhanath Sikdar, an Indian mathematician and surveyor from Bengal, was the first to identify Everest as the world's highest peak, using trigonometric calculations based on Nicolson's measurements. An official announcement that Peak XV was the highest was delayed for several years as the calculations were repeatedly verified. Waugh began work on Nicolson's data in 1854, and along with his staff spent almost two years working on the calculations, having to deal with the problems of light refraction, barometric pressure, and temperature over the vast distances of the observations. Finally, in March 1856 he announced his findings in a letter to his deputy in Calcutta. Kangchenjunga was declared to be Шаблон:Convert, while Peak XV was given the height of Шаблон:Convert. Waugh concluded that Peak XV was "most probably the highest in the world". In actuality, Peak XV was found to be exactly Шаблон:Convert high, but was publicly declared to be Шаблон:Convert. The arbitrary addition of 2 feet (60 cm) was to avoid the impression that an exact height of 29,000 feet was nothing more than a rounded estimate.

Naming

With the height now established, what to name the peak was clearly the next challenge. While the survey was anxious to preserve local names if possible (e.g., Kangchenjunga and Dhaulagiri were local names), Waugh argued that he was unable to find any commonly used local name. Waugh's search for a local name was hampered by Nepal and Tibet being closed to foreigners at the time. Many local names existed, with perhaps the best known in Tibet for several centuries being Chomolungma, which had appeared on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D'Anville. However, Waugh argued that with the plethora of local names, it would be difficult to favour one specific name over all others. So, he decided that Peak XV should be named after George Everest, his predecessor as Surveyor General of India. He wrote:

I was taught by my respected chief and predecessor, Colonel Sir George Everest to assign to every geographical object its true local or native appellation. But here is a mountain, most probably the highest in the world, without any local name that we can discover, whose native appellation, if it has any, will not very likely be ascertained before we are allowed to penetrate into Nepal. In the meantime the privilege as well as the duty devolves on me to assign…a name whereby it may be known among citizens and geographers and become a household word among civilized nations.

George Everest opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that Everest could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by "the native of India". Waugh's proposed name prevailed despite the objections, and in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society officially adopted Mount Everest as the name for the highest mountain in the world.

The Tibetan name for Mount Everest is Chomolungma or Qomolangma (Шаблон:Unicode, which means "Saint Mother"), and the Chinese transliteration is Шаблон:Unicode (Шаблон:Zh-st), which refers to Earth Mother; the Chinese translation is Shèngmǔ Fēng (Шаблон:Zh-st), which refers to Holy Mother. According to English accounts of the mid-19th century, the local name in Darjeeling for Mount Everest was Deodungha, or "Holy Mountain".

In 1865, the mountain was officially given its English name by the Royal Geographical Society after being proposed by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. Waugh chose to name the mountain after George Everest, first using the spelling Mont Everest, and then Mount Everest. However, the modern pronunciation of Everest Шаблон:IPAEng is in fact different from Sir George's own pronunciation of his surname, which was Шаблон:IPA.

In the late 19th century, many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was "Gaurisankar". This was a result of confusion of Mount Everest with the actual Gauri Sankar, which, when viewed from Kathmandu, stands almost directly in front of Everest. Шаблон:Fact

In the early 1960s, the Nepalese government gave Mount Everest the official name Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा). This name had not previously been used; the local inhabitants knew the mountain as Chomolungma. The mountain was not known and named in ethnic Nepal (that is, the Kathmandu valley and surrounding areas). Шаблон:Fact The government set out to find a Nepalese name for the mountain because the Sherpa/Tibetan name Chomolangma was not acceptable, as it would have been against the idea of unification (Nepalization) of the country.Шаблон:Fact

In 2002, the Chinese People's Daily newspaper published an article making a case against the continued use of the English name for the mountain in the Western world, insisting that it should be referred to by its Tibetan name. The newspaper argued that the Chinese (in nature a Tibetan) name preceded the English one, as Mount Qomolangma was marked on a Chinese map more than 280 years ago.

Measurement

in front and Nuptse on the left]] In 1856, Andrew Waugh announced Everest (then known as Peak XV) as Шаблон:Convert high, after several years of calculations based on observations made by the Great Trigonometric Survey.

More recently, the mountain has been found to be Шаблон:Convert high, although there is some variation in the measurements. On 9 October 2005, after several months of measurement and calculation, the PRC's State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping officially announced the height of Everest as 8,844.43 m ± 0.21 m (29,017.16 ± 0.69 ft). They claimed it was the most accurate and precise measurement to date. This height is based on the actual highest point of rock and not on the snow and ice covering it. The Chinese team also measured a snow/ice depth of 3.5 m, which is in agreement with a net elevation of 8,848 m. The snow and ice thickness varies over time, making a definitive height of the snow cap impossible to determine.

The elevation of Шаблон:Convert was first determined by an Indian survey in 1955, made closer to the mountain, also using theodolites. It was subsequently reaffirmed by a 1975 Chinese measurement. In both cases the snow cap, not the rock head, was measured. In May 1999 an American Everest Expedition, directed by Bradford Washburn, anchored a GPS unit into the highest bedrock. A rock head elevation of 8,850 m (29,035 ft), and a snow/ice elevation 1 m (3 ft) higher, were obtained via this device. Although it has not been officially recognized by Nepal, this figure is widely quoted. Geoid uncertainty casts doubt upon the accuracy claimed by both the 1999 and 2005 surveys.

A detailed photogrammetric map (at a scale of 1:50,000) of the Khumbu region, including the south side of Mount Everest, was made by Erwin Schneider as part of the 1955 International Himalayan Expedition, which also attempted Lhotse. An even more detailed topographic map of the Everest area was made in the late 1980s under the direction of Bradford Washburn, using extensive aerial photography.

It is thought that the plate tectonics of the area are adding to the height and moving the summit northeastwards. Two accounts suggest the rates of change are Шаблон:Convert per year (upwards) and 3-6 mm (0.12-0.25 in) per year (northeastwards), but another account mentions more lateral movement (Шаблон:Convert), and even shrinkage has been suggested.

Comparisons

Everest is the mountain whose summit attains the greatest distance above sea level. Several other mountains are sometimes claimed as alternative "tallest mountains on Earth". Mauna Kea in Hawaii is tallest when measured from its base; it rises over Шаблон:Convert when measured from its base on the mid-ocean floor, but only attains Шаблон:Convert above sea level.

By the same measure of base to summit, Mount McKinley, in Alaska, is also taller than Everest. Despite its height above sea level of only Шаблон:Convert, Mount McKinley sits atop a sloping plain with elevations from 300-900 m (1,000-3,000 ft), yielding a height above base in the range of 5,300-5,900 m (17,300-19,300 ft); a commonly quoted figure is Шаблон:Convert. By comparison, reasonable base elevations for Everest range from Шаблон:Convert on the south side to Шаблон:Convert on the Tibetan Plateau, yielding a height above base in the range of 3,650 m (12,000 ft) to 4,650 m (15,300 ft).

The summit of Chimborazo in Ecuador is Шаблон:Convert farther from the Earth's centre (6,384.4 km or 3,967.1 mi) than that of Everest (6,382.3 km or 3,965.8 mi), because the Earth bulges at the Equator. However, Chimborazo attains a height of only Шаблон:Convert above sea level, and by this criterion it is not even the highest peak of the Andes.

Climbing routes

<imagemap> Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Southern and northern climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. rect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzo rect 200 28 335 52 Makalu rect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everest rect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateau rect 250 406 340 427 Rong River rect 333 149 409 186 Changtse rect 550 284 677 303 Rongbuk Glacier rect 478 196 570 218 North Face rect 237 231 346 267 East Rongbuk Glacier rect 314 290 536 309 North Col north ridge route rect 531 79 663 105 Lhotse rect 582 112 711 130 Nuptse rect 603 232 733 254 South Col route rect 716 165 839 206 Gyachung Kang rect 882 147 967 183 Cho Oyu rect 1 1 999 661

desc bottom-left </imagemap>

Mt. Everest has two main climbing routes, the southeast ridge from Nepal and the northeast ridge from Tibet, as well as many other less frequently climbed routes. Of the two main routes, the southeast ridge is technically easier and is the more frequently-used route. It was the route used by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953 and the first recognised of fifteen routes to the top by 1996. This was, however, a route decision dictated more by politics than by design as the Chinese border was closed to the western world in the 1950s after Communist China took over the control Tibet from the Republic of China.

Most attempts are made during May before the summer monsoon season. As the monsoon season approaches, a change in the jet stream at this time pushes it northward, thereby reducing the average wind speeds high on the mountain. While attempts are sometimes made after the monsoons in September and October, when the jet stream is again temporarily pushed northward, the additional snow deposited by the monsoons and the less stable weather patterns (tail end of the monsoon) makes climbing more difficult.

Southeast ridge

The ascent via the southeast ridge begins with a trek to Base Camp at Шаблон:Convert on the south side of Everest in Nepal. Expeditions usually fly into Lukla (2,860 m) from Kathmandu and pass through Namche Bazaar. Climbers then hike to Base Camp, which usually takes six to eight days, allowing for proper altitude acclimatization in order to prevent altitude sickness. Climbing equipment and supplies are carried by yaks, dzopkyos (yak hybrids) and human porters to Base Camp on the Khumbu Glacier. When Hillary and Tenzing climbed Everest in 1953, they started from Kathmandu Valley, as there were no roads further east at that time.

Climbers will spend a couple of weeks in Base Camp, acclimatizing to the altitude. During that time, Sherpas and some expedition climbers will set up ropes and ladders in the treacherous Khumbu Icefall. Seracs, crevasses and shifting blocks of ice make the icefall one of the most dangerous sections of the route. Many climbers and Sherpas have been killed in this section. To reduce the hazard, climbers will usually begin their ascent well before dawn when the freezing temperatures glue ice blocks in place. Above the icefall is Camp I at Шаблон:Convert.

From Camp I, climbers make their way up the Western Cwm to the base of the Lhotse face, where Camp II or Advanced Base Camp (ABC) is established at Шаблон:Convert. The Western Cwm is a relatively flat, gently rising glacial valley, marked by huge lateral crevasses in the centre which prevent direct access to the upper reaches of the Cwm. Climbers are forced to cross on the far right near the base of Nuptse to a small passageway known as the "Nuptse corner". The Western Cwm is also called the "Valley of Silence" as the topography of the area generally cuts off wind from the climbing route. The high altitude and a clear, windless day can make the Western Cwm unbearably hot for climbers.

From ABC, climbers ascend the Lhotse face on fixed ropes up to Camp III, located on a small ledge at Шаблон:Convert. From there, it is another 500 metres to Camp IV on the South Col at Шаблон:Convert. From Camp III to Camp IV, climbers are faced with two additional challenges: The Geneva Spur and The Yellow Band. The Geneva Spur is an anvil shaped rib of black rock named by a 1952 Swiss expedition. Fixed ropes assist climbers in scrambling over this snow covered rock band. The Yellow Band is a section of interlayered marble, phyllite, and semischist which also requires about 100 metres of rope for traversing it.

On the South Col, climbers enter the death zone. Climbers typically only have a maximum of two or three days they can endure at this altitude for making summit bids. Clear weather and low winds are critical factors in deciding whether to make a summit attempt. If weather does not cooperate within these short few days, climbers are forced to descend, many all the way back down to Base Camp. . The Khumbu Icefall can be seen in the left. In the center are the remains of a helicopter that crashed in 2003.]]

From Camp IV, climbers will begin their summit push around midnight with hopes of reaching the summit (still another 1,000 metres above) within 10 to 12 hours. Climbers will first reach "The Balcony" at Шаблон:Convert, a small platform where they can rest and gaze at peaks to the south and east in the early dawn light. Continuing up the ridge, climbers are then faced with a series of imposing rock steps which usually forces them to the east into waist deep snow, a serious avalanche hazard. At Шаблон:Convert, a small table-sized dome of ice and snow marks the South Summit.

From the South Summit, climbers follow the knife-edge southeast ridge along what is known as the "Cornice traverse" where snow clings to intermittent rock. This is the most exposed section of the climb as a misstep to the left would send one 2,400 m (8,000 ft) down the southwest face while to the immediate right is the 3,050 m (10,000 ft) Kangshung face. At the end of this traverse is an imposing 12 m (40 ft) rock wall called the "Hillary Step" at Шаблон:Convert.

Hillary and Tenzing were the first climbers to ascend this step and they did it with primitive ice climbing equipment and without fixed ropes. Nowadays, climbers will ascend this step using fixed ropes previously set up by Sherpas. Once above the step, it is a comparatively easy climb to the top on moderately angled snow slopes - though the exposure on the ridge is extreme especially while traversing very large cornices of snow. With increasing numbers of people climbing the mountain in recent years, the Step has frequently become a bottleneck, with climbers forced to wait significant amounts of time for their turn on the ropes, leading to problems in getting climbers efficiently up and down the mountain. After the Hillary Step, climbers also must traverse a very loose and rocky section that has a very large entanglement of fixed ropes that can be troublesome in bad weather. Climbers will typically spend less than a half-hour on the "top of the world" as they realize the need to descend to Camp IV before darkness sets in, afternoon weather becomes a serious problem, or supplemental oxygen tanks run out.

Northeast ridge

in Tibet]] The northeast ridge route begins from the north side of Everest in Tibet. Expeditions trek to the Rongbuk Glacier, setting up Base Camp at Шаблон:Convert on a gravel plain just below the glacier. To reach Camp II, climbers ascend the medial moraine of the east Rongbuk Glacier up to the base of Changtse at around Шаблон:Convert. Camp III (ABC - Advanced Base Camp) is situated below the North Col at 6,500 m (21,300 ft). To reach Camp IV on the north col, climbers ascend the glacier to the foot of the col where fixed ropes are used to reach the North Col at Шаблон:Convert. From the North Col, climbers ascend the rocky north ridge to set up Camp V at around Шаблон:Convert. The route crosses the North Face in a diagonal climb to the base of the Yellow Band reaching the site of Camp VI at Шаблон:Convert. From Camp VI, climbers will make their final summit push. Climbers face a treacherous traverse from the base of the First Step: 27,890 feet - 28,000 feet, to the crux of the climb, the Second Step: 28,140 feet - 28,300 feet. (The Second Step includes a climbing aid called the "Chinese ladder", a metal ladder placed semi-permanently in 1975 by a party of Chinese climbers. It has been almost continuously in place since, and is used by virtually all climbers on the route.) Once above the Second Step the inconsequential Third Step is clambered over: 28,510 feet - 28,870 feet. Once above these steps, the summit pyramid is climbed by means of a snow slope of 50 degrees, to the final summit ridge along which the top is reached.

Ascents

Шаблон:Main

Early expeditions

in Tibet with the north side of Everest in the background.]] In 1885, Clinton Thomas Dent, president of the Alpine Club, suggested that climbing Mount Everest was possible in his book Above the Snow Line.

The northern approach to the mountain was discovered by George Mallory on the first expedition in 1921. It was an exploratory expedition not equipped for a serious attempt to climb the mountain. With Mallory leading (and thus becoming the first European to set foot on Everest's flanks) they climbed the North Col Шаблон:Convert. From there, Mallory espied a route to the top, but the party was woefully unprepared for the enormity of climbing any further and descended.

The British returned for a 1922 expedition. George Finch ("The other George") climbed using oxygen for the first time. He ascended at a remarkable speed — Шаблон:Convert per hour, and reached an altitude of Шаблон:Convert, the first time a human climbed higher then 8,000m. This feat was entirely lost on the British climbing establishment — except for its "unsporting" nature. Mallory and Col. Felix Norton made a second unsuccessful attempt. Mallory was faulted for leading a group down from the North Col which got caught in an avalanche. Mallory was pulled down too, but seven native porters were killed.

The next Expedition was in 1924. The initial attempt by Mallory and Bruce, was aborted when weather conditions precluded the establishment of Camp VI. The next attempt was that of Norton and Somervell who climbed without oxygen and in perfect weather, traversing the North Face into the Great Couloir. Norton managed to reach Шаблон:Convert, though he ascended only Шаблон:Convert or so in the last hour. Mallory rustled up oxygen equipment for a last-ditch effort. He chose the young Andrew Irvine as his partner.

On 8 June 1924 George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made an attempt on the summit via the North Col/North Ridge/Northeast Ridge route from which they never returned. On 1 May 1999 the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition found Mallory's body on the North Face in a snow basin below and to the west of the traditional site of Camp VI. Controversy has raged in the mountaineering community as to whether or not one or both of them reached the summit 29 years before the confirmed ascent (and of course, safe descent) of Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953. The general consensus among climbers has been that they did not.

In 1933, Lady Houston, a British millionaire ex-showgirl, funded the Houston Everest Flight of 1933, which saw a formation of aircraft led by the Marquess of Clydesdale fly over the summit in an effort to deploy the British Union Flag at the top.

Early expeditions — such as Bruce's in the 1920s and Hugh Ruttledge's two unsuccessful attempts in 1933 and 1936 — tried to make an ascent of the mountain from Tibet, via the north face. Access was closed from the north to western expeditions in 1950, after the Chinese asserted control over Tibet. In 1950, Bill Tilman and a small party which included Charles Houston, Oscar Houston and Betsy Cowles undertook an exploratory expedition to Everest through Nepal along the route which has now become the standard approach to Everest from the south.

In the spring of 1952 a Swiss expedition, lead by Edouard Wyss-Dunant was granted permission to attempt a climb from Nepal. The expedition established a route through the Khumbu ice fall and ascended to the South Col at an elevation of Шаблон:Convert. Raymond Lambert and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay were able to reach a height of about Шаблон:Convert on the southeast ridge, setting a new climbing altitude record. Tenzing's experience was useful when he was hired to be part of the British expedition in 1953. He was born in the Tibetan village of Moyez and raised in Nepal.

First successful ascent by Tenzing and Hillary

In 1953, a ninth British expedition, led by John Hunt, returned to Nepal. Hunt selected two climbing pairs to attempt to reach the summit. The first pair (Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans) came within 100 m (300 feet) of the summit on 26 May 1953, but turned back after becoming exhausted. As planned, their work in route finding and breaking trail and their caches of extra oxygen were of great aid to the following pair. Two days later, the expedition made its second and final assault on the summit with its second climbing pair, the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay from Nepal. They reached the summit at 11:30 a.m. local time on 29 May 1953 via the South Col Route. At the time, both acknowledged it as a team effort by the whole expedition, but Tenzing revealed a few years later that Hillary had put his foot on the summit first. They paused at the summit to take photographs and buried a few sweets and a small cross in the snow before descending.

News of the expedition's success reached London on the morning of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation. Returning to Kathmandu a few days later, Hunt (a Briton) and Hillary (a subject of Elizabeth, through her role as head of state of New Zealand) discovered that they had been promptly knighted in the Order of the British Empire, a KBE, for the ascent. Tenzing (a subject of the King of Nepal) was granted the George Medal by the UK. Hunt was ultimately made a life peer in Britain, while Hillary became a founding member of the Order of New Zealand.

First ascents without supplemental oxygen

On 8 May 1978, Reinhold Messner (Italy) and Peter Habeler (Austria) made the first ascent without supplemental oxygen, using the southeast ridge route. On 20 August 1980, Messner reached the summit of the mountain solo for the first time, without supplementary oxygen or support, on the more difficult Northwest route via the North Col to the North Face and the Great Couloir. He climbed for three days entirely alone from his base camp at Шаблон:Convert.


First Winter Ascent

A team from Poland led by Andrzej Zawada is the first to reach peak via a winter ascent. Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki actually reach the Peak

1996 disaster

Шаблон:Main During the 1996 climbing season, fifteen people died trying to come down from the summit, making it the deadliest single year in Everest history. Eight of them died on 11 May alone. The disaster gained wide publicity and raised questions about the commercialization of Everest.

Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine, was in one of the affected parties, and afterwards published the bestseller Into Thin Air which related his experience. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide who felt impugned by Krakauer's book, co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb. The dispute sparked a large debate within the climbing community. In May 2004, Kent Moore, a physicist, and John L. Semple, a surgeon, both researchers from the University of Toronto, told New Scientist magazine that an analysis of weather conditions on 11 May suggested that freak weather caused oxygen levels to plunge approximately 14%.

The storm's impact on climbers on the mountain's other side, the North Ridge, where several climbers also died, was detailed in a first hand account by British filmmaker and writer Matt Dickinson in his book The Other Side of Everest.

2005 - Helicopter landing

On 14 May 2005, pilot Didier Delsalle of France landed a Eurocopter AS 350 B3 helicopter on the summit of Mount Everest (without any witness) and took off after about four minutes. (His rotors were continually engaged, constituting a "hover landing", and avoiding the risks of relying on the snow to support the aircraft.) He thereby set rotorcraft world records, for highest of both landing (de facto) and take-off (formally).

Delsalle had also performed, two days earlier, a take-off from the South Col; some press reports suggested that the report of the summit landing was a misunderstanding of a South Col one.

2006 - David Sharp controversy

Double-amputee climber Mark Inglis revealed in an interview with the press on 23 May 2006, that his climbing party, and many others, had passed a distressed climber, David Sharp, on 15 May, sheltering under a rock overhang 450 metres below the summit, without attempting a rescue. The revelation sparked wide debate on climbing ethics, especially as applied to Everest. The climbers who left him said that the rescue efforts would be useless and only cause more deaths because of how many people it would have taken to pull him off.

Much of this controversy was captured by the Discovery Channel while filming the television program '. A crucial decision affecting the fate of Sharp is shown in the program, where an early returning climber (Max Chaya) is descending and radios to his base camp manager (Russell Brice) that he has found a climber in distress. He is unable to identify Sharp, and Sharp had chosen to climb solo without any support, so he did not identify himself to other climbers. The base camp manager assumes that Sharp is part of a group that has abandoned him, and informs his climber that there is no chance of him being able to help Sharp [at 8000+ meters in altitude, barely anyone has the strength to help another man who is only semi conscious, and Max Chaya is only an amateur mountaineer]. As Sharp's condition deteriorates through the day and other descending climbers pass him, his opportunities for rescue diminish: his legs and feet curl from frost-bite, preventing him from walking; the later descending climbers are lower on oxygen and lack the strength to offer aid; time runs out for any Sherpas to return and rescue him. Most importantly, Sharp's decision to forgo all support leaves him with no margin for recovery.

As this debate raged, on 26 May, Australian climber Lincoln Hall was found alive, after being declared dead the day before. He was found by a party of four climbers (Dan Mazur, Andrew Brash, Myles Osborne and Jangbu Sherpa) who, giving up their own summit attempt, stayed with Hall and descended with him and a party of 11 Sherpas sent up to carry him down. Hall later fully recovered. Similar actions have been recorded since, including on 21 May 2007, when Canadian climber Meagan McGrath initiated the successful high-altitude rescue of Nepali Usha Bista.

2008 - Summer Olympic torch summit

Шаблон:Main China paved a Шаблон:Convert dirt road from Tingri County to its Base Camp in order to accommodate growing numbers of climbers on the north side of the mountain. It will become the highest asphalt-paved road in the world. Construction began on 18 June 2007 at a cost of 150 million yuan (US$19.7 million). China also routed the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay over Everest, going up the South Col route and back down the North Col route, on the way to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. A China Telecom cellular tower near the Base Camp provides phone coverage all the way to the summit.

Various records

According to the Nepalese government, the youngest person to climb Mount Everest was a 15-year-old Sherpa girl, and the youngest foreigner was 18-year-old Californian Samantha Larson in 2007.

The fastest ascent over the northeast ridge was accomplished in 2007 by Austrian climber Christian Stangl, who needed 16h 42min for the 10km distance from Camp III to the summit, just barely beating Italian Hans Kammerlander's record of 17 hours, accomplished in 1996. Both men climbed alone and without supplementary oxygen. The fastest oxygen-supported ascent over the southeast ridge was Nepalese Pemba Dorjie Sherpa's 2004 climb, using 8h 10min for the 17km route. The fastest ascent without supplementary oxygen over the southeast ridge was accomplished by French Marc Batard who needed 22h 30min in 1988.

The oldest climber to successfully reach Mt. Everest's summit is 76-year-old Min Bahadur Sherchan, who did so 25 May 2008 from the Nepal side. Sherchan beat the previous record set in 2007 by 71 year old Katsusuke Yanagisawa.

Death zone

Шаблон:Main While conditions classifying an area as a death zone apply to Mount Everest (altitudes higher than 8,000 m/26,246 ft), it is significantly more difficult for a climber to survive at the death zone on Mount Everest. Temperatures can dip to very low levels, resulting in frostbite of any body part exposed to the air. Since temperatures are so low, snow is well-frozen in certain areas and death by slipping and falling can also occur. High winds at these altitudes on Everest are also a potential threat to climbers. The atmospheric pressure at the top of Everest is about a third of sea level pressure, meaning there is about a third as much oxygen available to breathe as at sea level.

In May 2007, the Caudwell Xtreme Everest undertook a medical study of oxygen levels in human blood at extreme altitude. Over 200 volunteers climbed to Everest Base Camp where various medical tests were performed to examine blood oxygen levels. A small team also performed tests on the way to the summit.

Even at base camp the low level of available oxygen had direct effect on blood oxygen saturation levels. At sea level these are usually 98% to 99%, but at base camp this fell to between 85% and 87%. Blood samples taken at the summit indicated very low levels of oxygen present. A side effect of this is a vastly increased breathing rate, from 20-30 breaths per minute to 80-90 breaths, leading to exhaustion just trying to breathe.Шаблон:Fact

Lack of oxygen, exhaustion, extreme cold, and the dangers of the climb all contribute to the death toll. A person who is injured so he can't walk himself is in serious trouble since it is often impossible to carry someout out, and impossible to use a helicopter.

People who die during the climb are typically left behind. About 150 bodies have never been recovered. It is not uncommon that corpses are visible from the standard climbing routes.

Using bottled oxygen

]]

Most expeditions use oxygen masks and tanks above 8,000 m (26,246 ft). Everest can be climbed without supplementary oxygen but this increases the risk to the climber. Humans do not think clearly with low oxygen, and the combination of severe weather, low temperatures, and steep slopes often require quick, accurate decisions.

The use of bottled oxygen to ascend Mount Everest has been controversial. George Mallory himself described the use of such oxygen as unsportsmanlike, but he later concluded that it would be impossible to summit without it and consequently used it. When Tenzing and Hillary made the first successful summit in 1953, they used bottled oxygen. For the next twenty-five years, bottled oxygen was considered standard for any successful summit.

Reinhold Messner was the first climber to break the bottled oxygen tradition and in 1978, with Peter Habeler, made the first successful climb without it. Although critics alleged that he sucked mini-bottles of oxygen - a claim that Messner denied - Messner silenced them when he summited the mountain solo, without supplemental oxygen or any porters or climbing partners, on the more difficult northwest route, in 1980.

The aftermath of the 1996 disaster further intensified the debate. Jon Krakauer's Into Thin Air (1997) expressed the author's personal criticisms of the use of bottled oxygen. Krakauer wrote that the use of bottled oxygen allowed otherwise unqualified climbers to attempt to summit, leading to dangerous situations and more deaths. The 11 May 1996 disaster was partially caused by the sheer number of climbers (34 on that day) attempting to ascend, causing bottlenecks at the Hillary Step and delaying many climbers, most of whom summited after the usual 2 p.m. turnaround time. He proposed banning bottled oxygen except for emergency cases, arguing that this would both decrease the growing pollution on Everest—many bottles have accumulated on its slopes—and keep marginally qualified climbers off the mountain.

The 1996 disaster also introduced the issue of the guide's role in using bottled oxygen. Guide Anatoli Boukreev's decision not to use bottled oxygen was sharply criticized by Jon Krakauer. Boukreev's supporters (who include G. Weston DeWalt, who co-wrote The Climb) state that using bottled oxygen gives a false sense of security. Krakauer and his supporters point out that, without bottled oxygen, Boukreev was unable to directly help his clients descend. They state that Boukreev said that he was going down with client Martin Adams, but just below the South Summit, Boukreev determines that Adams was doing fine on the descent and so descends at a faster pace, leaving Adams behind. Adams states in The Climb: "For me, it was business as usual, Anatoli's going by, and I had no problems with that."

Шаблон:Panorama simple

Thefts and other crimes

Some climbers have reported life-threatening thefts from supply caches. Vitor Negrete, the first Brazilian to climb Everest without oxygen and part of David Sharp's party, died during his descent, and theft from his high-altitude camp may have contributed.

In addition to theft, the 2008 book High Crimes by Michael Kodas describes unethical guides and sherpas, prostitution and gambling at the Tibet Base Camp, fraud related to the sale of oxygen bottles, and climbers collecting donations under the pretense of removing trash from the mountain.

Flora and fauna

Euophrys omnisuperstes, a minute black jumping spider, has been found at elevations as high as Шаблон:Convert, possibly making it the highest confirmed non microscopic permanent resident on Earth. They lurk in crevices and possibly feed on frozen insects that have been blown there by the wind. It should be noted that there is a high likelihood of microscopic life at even higher altitudes.

Birds, such as the bar-headed goose, have been seen flying at the higher altitudes of the mountain, while others such as the Chough have been spotted as high as the South Col (7,920 m), scavenging on food, or even corpses, left over by climbing expeditions.

Geology

Geologists have subdivided the rocks comprising Mount Everest into three units called "formations". Each of these formations are separated from each other by low-angle faults, called “detachments”, along which they have been thrust over each other. From the summit of Mount Everest to its base these rock units are the Qomolangma Formation, the North Col Formation, and the Rongbuk Formation.

From its summit to the top of the Yellow Band, about 8,600 m above sea level, the top of Mount Everest consists of the Qomolangma Formation, which has also been designated as either the Everest Formation or Jolmo Lungama Formation. It consists of grayish to dark gray or white, parallel laminated and bedded limestone interlayered with subordinate beds of recrystallized dolomite with argillaceous laminae and siltstone. Gansser first reported finding microscopic fragments of crinoids in these limestones. Later petrographic analysis of samples of this Ordovician limestone from near the summit revealed them to be composed of carbonate pellets and finely fragmented remains of trilobites, crinoids, and ostracods. Other samples were so badly sheared and recrystallized that their original constituents could not be determined. The Qomolangma Formation is broken up by several high-angle faults that terminate at the low angle thrust fault, the Qomolangma Detachment. This detachment separates it from the underlying Yellow Band. The lower five metres of the Qomolangma Formation overlying this detachment are very highly deformed.

The bulk of Mount Everest, between 7,000 and 8,600 m, consists of the North Col Formation, of which the Yellow Band forms its upper part between 8,200 to 8,600 m. The Yellow Band consists of intercalated beds of diopsite-epidote-bearing marble, which weathers a distinctive yellowish brown, and muscovite-biotite phyllite and semischist. Petrographic analysis of marble collected from about 8,300 m found it to consist as much as five percent of the ghosts of recrystallized crinoid ossicles. The upper five metres of the Yellow Band lying adjacent to the Qomolangma Detachment is badly deformed. A 5–40 cm thick fault breccia separates it from the overlying Qomolangma Formation.

The remainder of the North Col Formation, exposed between 7,000 to 8,200 m on Mount Everest, consists of interlayered and deformed schist, phyllite, and minor marble. Between 7,600 and 8,200 m, the North Col Formation consists chiefly of biotite-quartz phyllite and chlorite-biotite phyllite intercalated with minor amounts of biotite-sericite-quartz schist. Between 7,000 and 7,600 m, the lower part of

Tips & Hints

Nepal Planet Treks
Nepal Planet Treks 4 September 2017
0
merupakan gunung tertinggi di dunia dengan ketinggian setinggi 8850 meter. Gunung Everest terletak di banjaran gunung Himalaya. Everest adalah gunung tertinggi di bumi (diukur dari paras laut). Rabung kemuncak gunung menandakan sempadan antara Nepal dan Tibet. Di Nepali gunung tersebut dikenali sebagai Sagarmatha (Sanskrit untuk "dahi langit") dan di Tibetan Chomolangma atau Qomolangma ("ibu alam"), yang diambil dari nama Cina 珠穆朗玛峰 (pinyin: Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng). Walaupun ia dinamakan Everest oleh Sir Andrew Waugh, jeneral peninjau British di India, sebagai penghormatan kepada yang sebelumnya Sir George Everest, sebutan popular Everest (Ev-er-est) berbeza dangan sebutan Sir George mengenai nama akhirnya (Eve-rest). Radhanath Sikdar, juru ukur dan pakar matematik dari Bengal, merupakan orang yang pertama mengenal pasti Everest sebagai kemuncak tertinggi melalui kiraan trigonometri, pada 1852. Sesetengah rakyat India percaya bahawa puncak tersebut sepatutnya dinamakan menurut Sikdar, bukannya Everest. Gunung ini dianggarkan 8,850 m (29,035 kaki; hampir 5.5 batu) tinggi, walaupun terdapat variasi daripada segi ukuran (kerajaan Nepal tidak mengesahkan ukuran ini secara rasmi, ketinggian Everest masih dianggap 8,848 m). Ia pertama kali diukur pada tahun 1856 sebagai mempunyai ketinggian 29,000 kaki, tetapi diisytiharkan sebagai 29,002 kaki tinggi. Tambahan secara rawak 2 kaki menunjukkan perasaan masa itu bahawa ketinggian tepat 29,000 kaki akan dianggap sebagai anggaran yang dibulatkan. Masa kini anggaran umum yang diterima pakai adalah 8850 m yang diperolehi melalui bacaan Sistem Kedudukan Sejagat (GPS). Everest masih meningkat akibat pergerakan plat tektonik kawasan tersebut; bagaimanapun, kesan itu hanya ketara pada skala masa geologi. Secara tepat, Everest adalah gunung yang kemuncaknya mencapai jarak paling luas di atas paras laut. Dua gunung lain yang kadang-kala didakwa sebagai "gunung tertinggi di dunia"ialah Mauna Loa di Hawaii ialah paling tertinggi apabila diukur dari dasarnya pada dasar tengah laut, tetapi hanya mencapai ketinggian 4,170 m (13,680 kaki) atas paras laut dan kemuncak Gunung Chimborazo di Ecuador adalah 2,150 m lebih dari pusat bumi berbanding Everest, kerana Bumi agak berisi dikawasan Khatulistiwa. Bagaimanapun, Chimborazo hanya mencapai ketinggian 6,272 m atas paras laut, yang menurut kriteria bukan juga kemuncak tertinggi di Andes. Lebih menarik, dasar terdalam di lautan adalah lebih dalam berbanding ketinggian Everest: Challenger Deep, terletak di Parit Mariana, begitu dalam sehinggakan sekiranya gunung Everest diletakkan di dalamnya, masih terdapat hampir satu batu air menutupinya. http://www.nepalguideinfo.com/everest-base-camp-trek/ http://www.nepalplanettreks.com Nepal Mounatin Guide TeamS (Nepal Planet Treks and Expedition Pvt. Ltd.) GPO: 4453 Paknajol ,Thamel, Kathmandu, Nepal Phone: +977-1-4252196 Mobile: +977-9841613822 (Sanjib) Fax: +977-1-4252196 Email: sanjibtrekguide@gmail.com

added at 03.07:
Lebih menarik, dasar terdalam di lautan adalah lebih dalam berbanding ketinggian Everest: Challenger Deep, terletak di Parit Mariana, begitu dalam sehinggakan sekiranya gunung Everest diletakkan di dalamnya, masih terdapat hampir satu batu air menutupinya. http://www.nepalguideinfo.com/everest-base-camp-trek/ http://www.nepalplanettreks.com Nepal Mounatin Guide TeamS (Nepal Planet Treks and Expedition Pvt. Ltd.) GPO: 4453 Paknajol ,Thamel, Kathmandu, Nepal Phone: +977-1-4252196 Mobile: +977-9841613822 (Sanjib) Fax: +977-1-4252196 Email: sanjibtrekguide@gmail.com

added at 03.07:
Peter XX
Peter XX 25 March 2011
6
Oxygen taste real good here.
Raphael Cornuz
Raphael Cornuz 7 October 2010
6
Eat the cleanest snow in the World.
Artyom Fedosov
Artyom Fedosov 24 July 2014
5
The highest summit in Asia and around the world. Elevation — 8,848 m.
Thomas Evans
Thomas Evans 19 September 2012
5
Wear a coat
pin_lopez
pin_lopez 21 February 2012
3
Try the Frozen Cappuccino up here. It's frozen!
CAPANOGLU
CAPANOGLU 24 January 2011
2
Need to hot tea !!! But it is awesome good !
Alberto Brandão
Alberto Brandão 18 July 2010
2
wear coats!
Malcolm MacDonald
Malcolm MacDonald 6 March 2013
1
This is a tall mountain.
Gregory Cline
Gregory Cline 16 November 2011
1
drinking a beer, having a cig, and wearing my flip flops... perfect weather up here
CAPANOGLU
CAPANOGLU 20 January 2011
1
Would you want to drink a cup of tea with me on the peak of the world ? !(8,840 m)
Rob Shepherd
Rob Shepherd 29 October 2010
1
Take snow shoes and something good to breathe
OngAndrew 翁
OngAndrew 翁 12 September 2015
0
My Great Salute to those previous successful Everest conquerors & Respect to those climbers who died somewhere at this famous peak
OngAndrew 翁
OngAndrew 翁 12 September 2015
0
Freezing cold... Superb amazed on the peak of the World
Tenzin Woaber
Tenzin Woaber 28 September 2014
0
Take it easy... Let ur body make adjustment to the altitude before doing any thing physical challenging... Remember it's at more the 5000 meters above sea level
Daniele Giusto
Daniele Giusto 29 August 2014
0
Popular place among 4sq people 😝
Don Deedo
Don Deedo 5 June 2014
0
Open eyes clearly with deep breath and enjoy with mother of nature
Adam Lorenz
Adam Lorenz 5 June 2014
0
Try climbing in your swim shorts while sucking the o's
Peter Nitsch
Peter Nitsch 24 October 2012
0
Bring oxygen.
Cybaright
Cybaright 23 May 2012
0
I'm on Tip of the World...
Katharine Robinson
Katharine Robinson 27 December 2011
0
In the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Our Man Bashir", Everest is the location of Hippocrates Noah's hideway. It was on the south-eastern slope at an elevation of 25,000ft.
Send

Videos with this attraction

The Himalayas from 20,000 ft.
7.3 /10
Advisor.Travel
Foursquare 7.3
86,503 people have been here
Advisor.Travel 0
Foursquare 710
Facebook 85,793
I've been here I Want to visit
Open hours
Mon-Sun
24 Hours
Location
1.9km from Hornbein Couloir, Shigatse, Nepal
27.9833°, 86.9333°
Get directions
Map
Distances
Casablanca8800 km
Kathmandu162 km
Siliguri206 km
Darbhanga227 km
Tirhoot258 km
Munger293 km