This castle was originally built by Kato Yoshiaki in 1603. It had a large five-story tenshu, or keep, which was moved to Aizu Castle when Kato was transferred there in 1627. The next lord, Tadachika Gamoh, died in 1635, shortly after completing the ninomaru. After Tadachika, Matsudaira Sadayuki became the new lord. He completed a new tenshu in 1642. His heirs continued to rule the castle after his death. However, on New Years Day, 1784, this tenshu was struck by lightning and burned down. The current tenshu was built between 1820 and 1854. The castle survived the Meiji restoration, but parts of it were destroyed by bombing from American forces during World War II. Since 1966, the city of Matsuyama has been working to restore the castle.
In Matsuyama, the Tenshukaku, or the main building of the castle was viewed from almost all places. The castle is accessible from the city central via Matsuyamajō Ropeway, a chairlift, or on foot.