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Masjid al-Haram

Mosques in Mecca
Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
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Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām (Шаблон:Lang Шаблон:IPA2 "The Sacred Mosque"), is the largest mosque in the world. Located in the city of Mecca, it surrounds the Kaaba, the place which Muslims turn towards while offering daily prayers and is considered the holiest place on Earth by Muslims. The mosque is also known as the Grand Mosque.

The current structure covers an area of Шаблон:Convert including the outdoor and indoor praying spaces and can accommodate up to 4 million worshippers during the Hajj period, one of the largest annual gatherings of people in the world.

History

Шаблон:Weasel Islamic tradition holds that the Mosque was first built by the angels before the creation of mankind, when God ordained a place of worship on Earth to reflect the house in heaven called al-Baytu l-Maˤmur (Arabic: البيت المعمور, "The Worship Place of Angels"). Al-Baytu l-Maˤmur is believed to be located in heaven directly above the Kaaba. The first Kaaba was built by angels and Adam was the first human to rebuild it. From time to time the Mosque was destroyed and rebuilt anew. According to Islamic belief it was built by Ibrahim (Abraham), with the help of his son Ishmael. They were ordered by Allah to build the mosque, and the Kaaba. The Black Stone is situated near the eastern corner of the Kaaba. Some believe it is to start the circumambulation around the Kaaba, while some believe it to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham.Шаблон:Who The Kaaba is the direction for all the Muslims to pray across the globe thus signifying unity among all. The Islamic teaching specifically mentions that nothing is magical about the Grand Mosque except for the oasis Zamzam which has never dried ever since it was revealed.

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Muslim belief places the story of Ishmael and his mother's search for water in the general vicinity of the mosque. In the story, Hagar runs between the hills of Safa and Marwah looking for water for her son, until God eventually reveals to her the Zamzam Well, from where water continues to flow non-stop to this day.

After the Hijra, upon Muhammed's victorious return to Mecca, the people of Mecca themselves removed all the idols in and around the Kaaba and cleansed it. This began the Islamic rule over the Kaaba, and the building of a mosque around it.

The first major renovation to the Mosque took place in 692. Before this renovation – which included the mosque’s outer walls been risen and decoration to the ceiling – the Mosque was a small open area with the Kaaba at the centre. By the end of the 700s the Mosque’s old wooden columns had been replaced with marble columns and the wings of the prayer hall had been extended on both sides along with the addition of a minaret. The spread of Islam in the Middle East and the influx of pilgrims required an almost complete rebuilding of the site which came to include more marble and three further minarets.

In 1399, the Mosque caught fire and what was not destroyed in the fire (very little) was damaged by unseasonable heavy rain. Again the mosque was rebuilt over six years using marble and wood sourced from nearby mountains in the Hejaz region of current day Saudi Arabia. When the mosque was renovated again in 1570 by Sultan Selim II’s private architect it resulted in the replacement of the flat roof with domes decorated with calligraphy internally and the placement of new support columns. These features – still present at the Mosque – are the oldest surviving parts of the building and in fact older than the Kaaba itself (discounting the black stone itself) which is currently in its fourth incarnation made in 1629. The Saudi government acknowledges 1570 as the earliest date for architectural features of the present Mosque.

Following further damaging rain in the 1620s, the Mosque was renovated yet again: a new stone arcade was added, three more minarets were built and the marble flooring was retiled. This was the unaltered state of the Mosque for nearly three centuries.

Saudi Development

The most significant architectural and structural changes came, and continue to come, from the Saudi status of ‘Guardian of the Holy Places’ and the honorific title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (the other being the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina) been afforded to King Abdul Aziz. Many of the previously mentioned features – particularly the support columns – were destroyed in spite of their historical value. In their place came artificial stone and marble, the ceiling was refurnished and the floor was replaced. The Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, an important part of both Hajj and Umrah, came to be included in the Mosque itself during this time via roofing and enclosement. Also during this first Saudi renovation four minarets were added.

The second Saudi renovations, this time under King Fahd, added a new wing and an outdoor prayer area to the Mosque. The new wing which is also for prayers is accessed through the King Fahd Gate. This extension is considered to have been from 1982-1988.

The third Saudi extension (1988-2005) saw the building of further minarets, the erecting of a King’s residence overlooking the Mosque and further prayer area in and around the mosque itself. These developments have taken place simaltenously with those in Arafat, Mina and Muzdalifah. This third extension has also resulted in 18 more gates been built, three domes corresponding in position to each gate and the installation of nearly 500 marble columns.

Modern but essentially non-architectural developments have been the addition of heated floors, air conditioning, escalators and a drainage system.

The death of King Fahd means that the Mosque is now undergoing a fourth extension which began in 2007 and is projected to last until 2020. King Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz plans to increase the capacity of the mosque by 35% from its current maximum capacity of 800,000 with 1,120,000 outside the Mosque itself.

Religious significance

The importance of the mosque is twofold. It not only serves as the common direction towards which Muslims pray, but is also the main location for pilgrimages.

Qibla

Шаблон:Unreferenced section Шаблон:Main The qibla—the direction that Muslims turn to in their prayers (salah)—is toward the Kaaba and symbolizes unity in worshipping one God. At one point the direction of the qibla was toward Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) (and is therefore called the First of the Two Qiblas),Шаблон:Fact however, this only lasted for seventeen months, after which the qibla became oriented towards the Kaaba in Mecca. According to accounts from Muhammad's companions, the change happened very suddenly during the noon prayer at Medina in the Masjid al-Qiblatain.

Pilgrimage

Шаблон:Main

The Haram is the focal point of the hajj and umrah pilgrimages that occur in the month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Islamic calendar and at any time of the year, respectively. The Hajj pilgrimage is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford the trip. In recent times, about 3 million Muslims perform the hajj every year.

Some of the rituals performed by pilgrims are symbolic of historical incidents. For example, the episode of Hagar's search for water is emulated by Muslims as they run between the two hills of Safa and Marwah whenever they visit Mecca.

Kaaba

Шаблон:Unreferenced section Шаблон:Main Literally, Kaaba in Arabic means square house. The word Kaaba may also be derivative of a word meaning a cube. Some of these other names include:

  • Al-Bait ul Ateeq which, according to one interpretation, means the earliest and ancient. According to another interpretation, it means independent and liberating.
  • Al-Bayt ul Haram which may be translated as 'the honorable house'.

The whole building is constructed out of the layers of gray blue stone from the hills surrounding Mecca. The four corners roughly face the four points of the compass. In the eastern corner is the Hajr-al-Aswad (the Black Stone), at the northern corner lies the Rukn-al-Iraqi ('The Iraqi corner'), at the west lies Rukn-al-Shami ('The Syrian corner') and at the south Rukn-al-Yamani ('The Yemeni corner'). The four walls are covered with a curtain (Kiswah). The kiswa is usually of black brocade with the Shahada outlined in the weave of the fabric. About two-thirds of the way up runs a gold embroidered band covered with Qur'anic text.

Imams

Шаблон:Unreferenced section Imams at Haram Sharif are:

  • Sheikh Muhammed Al-Subayyil (محمد السبيل)
  • Sheikh Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais (عبد الرحمن السديس).Leading imam/Chief of imams at Masjid Al Haram
  • Sheikh Dr. Saud Al-Shuraim (سعود بن إبراهيم الشريم)- Judge in Mecca High Court.
  • Sheikh Dr. Salih bin Abdullah al Humaid (صالح بن حميد)- Chairman Saudi Majlis al Shura
  • Sheikh Dr. Usaama bin Abdullah al Khayyat (أسامة بن عبدالله خياط).
  • Sheikh Dr.Salih Al-Talib (صالح الطالب) (Judge in Makkah High Court) appointed in 2003.
  • Sheikh Abdullah Awad Al Johany (عبدالله عواد الجهني) (From 2005 during Ramadhan for taraweeh prayers. Appointed as full Imam of Kaabah in July 2007)
  • Sheikh Mahir Al-Muaiqely (ماهر المعيقلي) Appointed in July 2007(Has led taraweeh in 'Al-Masjid(u) 'n-Nabawiy' in Ramadhan 2005 and 2006)
  • Sheikh Khaled Al Ghamdi (خالد الغامدي)(Appointed after Hajj 2008)
  • Sheikh Faisal Al Ghazzawi (فيصل غزاوي) (Appointed after Hajj 2008)

Former Imams include:

  • The Late Sheikh Abdullah Al-Khulaifi (عبد الله الخليفي).
  • The Late Sheikh Ali Bin Abdullah Jabir (على بن عبد الله جابر).
  • The Late Sheikh Umar Al-Subayyil (عمر السبيل) (son of Muhummad Al-Subayyil).
  • The Late Sheikh Abdullah al Humaid (عبد الله الحميد)- Chief Justice of Saudi Arabia.
  • The Late Sheikh Abdullah Al-harazi (عبدالله الحرازي) Chairman Saudi Majlis al Shura.
  • The Late Sheikh Abdullah Khayyat (عبدالله خياط).

The imams have a set Rota to decide who leads which prayer in Makkah.

Fajr duty is Sheikh Salih bin Abdullah al Humaid. But he was made chairman/speaker of Saudi Parliament (Majlis Shura), so most of the time he is in Riyadh Capital. So in his absence Sheikh Saud Al-Shuraim was given Fajr Salah. If Sheikh Shuraim is away then Sheikh Al-Talib leads the Fajr Salah but now Sheikh Mahir leads it. Whenever Sheikh Humaid is in Mecca he will lead fajr salah.

Zuhar is led by Sheikh Usama Khayat.

Asr is led by Sheikh Al-Talib.

Magrib duty is Sheikh Sudais. When he is not around then it used to Sheikh Al-Talib who used to lead it until recently when Sheikh Mahir used to come and now Sheikh Faisal Gazzawi.

Esha duty is Sheikh Al-Talib. When he is not around Sheikh Khalid Al Ghamdi comes.

Muezzins

Шаблон:Unreferenced section Mu'adh-dhins at the Haram Sharif include:

  • Sheikh Ali Ahmed Mulla (على أحمد ملا)(Longest serving muezzin at Masjid Al Haram, started at the age of 14. Officially appointed as a muezzin of The Sacred Mosque in 1975)
  • Sheikh Mohammed Farouk Abdul Rahman Hadhrawi ( محمد فاروق عبد الرحمان حضراؤى), Muezzin of Masjid al-Haram and Masjid Namirah, on the day of Arafah.
  • Sheikh Mohammed Shaker Muezzin (محمد مؤذن).
  • Sheikh Abdullah Reyes (عبدالله ريس)(Oldest muezzin at Masjid Al Haram)
  • Sheikh Majid Ibrahim Abbas (ماجد ابراهيم عباس)
  • Sheikh Abdullah Basnawi
  • Sheikh Abdul Rahman Basamji
  • Sheikh Ahmad Toufik
  • Sheikh Naif (الشيخ نايفا)
  • Sheikh Faisal Nu'maan

Former Muezzins include:

  • The Late Sheikh Muhammad Khaleel Ramal (محمد خليل رمل).
  • The Late Sheikh Hasan Ahmad Shahat ( حسن احمد شحات).

Muezzins at the Haram Sharif should have certain qualities, most importantly good morals and a good voice in addition to Islamic knowledge which all help him perform his duty in the best manner.

There are 16 muezzins at the mosque now, and during Ramadan an additional six are appointed. Apart from adhan, a muezzin also supports imams by repeating what they say in a loud voice. This is important, especially during Ramadan, when a large number of worshippers throng the mosque.

Incidents

Шаблон:Unreferenced section

1979 Grand Mosque Seizure

Шаблон:Main A terrorist attack on the mosque took place on November 20, 1979. The seizure by the dissidents (men and women) was led by Juhayman al-Otaibi. This event shook the Muslim world as the holiest of Islamic sites saw violence and killing, when hundreds of pilgrims present for the annual hajj were taken hostage, and in the aftermath, large numbers of both Saudi forces and of the militants were killed in the ensuing battles for control of the site.

1987 riots

Шаблон:Main A terrorist attack on the mosque took place. On July 31 1987, Iranian pilgrims staged a demonstration in the City of Mecca. Following the intervention of the Saudi security forces 402 people were killed (275 Iranians, 85 Saudis including policemen, and 45 pilgrims from other countries) and 649 wounded (303 Iranians, 145 Saudis, and 201 other nationalities).Шаблон:Fact

See also

References

Шаблон:Reflist

External links

Tips & Hints

Amirah Mera.94
Amirah Mera.94 23 June 2013
131
<3 amazing view
Christina
Christina 10 August 2012
76
I love Makkah ,I felt peace in my heart ❤❤I love it so much May God accept my omrah
Abdullah A. Bin Eid
Abdullah A. Bin Eid 25 July 2013
1413
اللهم اعتق رقابنا و والدينا عن النار
Saudiano
Saudiano 3 January 2013
377
الحمدلله الذي يسر لنا العمره وزيارة بيته الحرام ،،،نسأل الله العظيم أن يتقبل منا عمرتنا وصلواتنا وأن يستجيب لدعائنا انه سميع مجيب
Mert Dertsiz
Mert Dertsiz 8 May 2013
330
Rabbim herkese gelmeyi nasip etsin.
AH Altaher
AH Altaher 17 July 2013
309
اللهم زد هذا البيت تشريفا وتعظيما وتكريما ومهابة وبرا
Rasha Mohs.
Rasha Mohs. 3 July 2013
270
ستجد دائماً سبباً للسعادة، فقط تأمّل حياتك، واقنَع بما رُزقت، واشعر بالامتنان، وتقبّل، واعرف أن من حق نفسك عليك أن تُشعِرها بالرضا ♥
Don Medo
Don Medo 12 May 2013
238
أطهر بقاع الأرض وراحه نفسيه لما تكون داخل الحرم و يكفيك منظر المعتمرين و المصلين وهم مبسوطين ❤❤
Amro Metwally
Amro Metwally 28 January 2013
232
اللهم إنا نسألك زيادة في الدين وبركة في العمر وصحة في الجسد وسعة في الرزق وتوبة قبل الموت وشهادة عند الموت ومغفرة بعد الموت وعفوا عند الحساب وأمانا من العذاب ونصيبا من الجنه
🦄 Lama
🦄 Lama 16 September 2013
189
When i pray there i feel so close to allah🙏❤ Sub7anallah! . 💖هنا الراحة والطمانينة بمعناها
Daniah Bamarouf
Daniah Bamarouf 16 July 2013
161
الصلاة في المسجد الحرام تعادل ١٠٠ ألف صلاة! إحساس لا يوصف بمجرد رؤية الحرم!!كمية الناس المختلفة الاجناس والالوان والاعمار والمتفقة بالنيث والهدف(اللهم لا تحرمنا ولا تحرم أي مسلم من زيارة بيتك الحرام)♥
Abu Anas
Abu Anas 25 April 2013
116
اللهم لا تحرمنا من القدوم على هذا المكان دومًا يا ذا الجلال والإكرام
1sTurki
1sTurki 12 September 2013
106
أجمل و أطيب و أطهر مكان على وجه الأرض ،، مافيه مكان اكثر طمأنينة من هالمكان .. جزء من الجنة ❤
Abdulrahman Alangari
Abdulrahman Alangari 21 August 2013
102
اللهم ياربنا مس اخواننا في #سوريا الضر وانت ارحم الراحميناللهم فرج همهمواحقن دمائهمواحفظ أعراضهم اللهم اشف مرضاهم
أَحْمَدّ آلْ عَزَبْ 👨🏻‍✈️✈️
الحجر الأسود
Wejdan AlSubaie
Wejdan AlSubaie 12 July 2013
85
اللهم صل وسلم على سيدنا وشفيعنا وحبيبنا محمد♡
Wejdan AlSubaie
Wejdan AlSubaie 21 July 2013
77
الصلاة بالمسجد الحرام تعادل 100 ألف صلاة !أحساس لايوصف بمجرد رؤية الحرم !!كمية الناس المختلفة الأجناس والألوان والأعمار والمتفقة بالنية والهدف (اللهم لاتحرمنا ولا تحرم أي مسلم من زيارة بيتك الحرام )♡♡
Fatima Al Slail
Fatima Al Slail 30 August 2013
73
يوجد صناديق الأمانات،قدام كل بوابةرئيسيةالساعه5 ريال،افضل تحط اي أكياس او جزم او اي شي عندك.. بدل ماتحمل اي شي و تحوس وين تحطهم وانت تصلي.. احس روحانية اكثر لما تكون خالي الا من ثياب العمره و دعائك ❤
Razan Almershed
Razan Almershed 23 January 2012
69
ربي لك الحمد ان دعوتني لهذا المكان الشريف .. الهي فتقبل مني وتب علي انك انت التواب الرحيم
Eminenur Onat
Eminenur Onat 9 February 2013
68
Rabbim buraları görmeyi anlamayı herkese nasip etsin..
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4256 King Abdul Aziz Rd, Al Haram, Mecca 24231 7250, Saudi Arabia
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