"The Drums, The Tapestry Room, Weyer's Cave"; Lithograph from Beyer (1858): Album of Virginia: Illustrations of the Old Dominion.
Grand Caverns, formerly known as Weyer's Cave, is located in the central Shenandoah Valley near the town of Grottoes, Virginia, USA. A limestone cavern, it claims the distinction of being America's oldest show cave, in operation since 1806.<ref name="Huso2010">Шаблон:Citation</ref>
In 1973, the National Park Service declared the cave a National Natural Landmark because of its unusual (and unusually abundant) "shield formations".
The cavern system was discovered in 1804 by 18-year-old Bernard Weyer, a young trapper, looking for his missing trap. He named it Weyer's Cave, after himself, and, after exploring it for two years, opened it for the public, the first show cave of the United States.
During the Civil War and the Valley Campaign, the cave was visited by both Confederate and Union soldiers. During their visits, over 230 soldiers signed their names on the cave's walls. One noted signature is that of W.W. Miles, signed on September 26, 1864. Once, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson was apparently camped near Port Republic and allowed his soldiers to visit the caverns. Jackson himself decided not to go, saying, "I fear I shall be underground soon enough, and I have no desire to speed the process!"
In 2004, the Grand Caverns management requested that the Virginia Region chapter of the National Speleological Society conduct a re-survey of the cave system which had not been done since the 1930s. With completion of the re-survey in the original, commercial portion of the cave (2,651 m or 8,694 ft), the cavers pushed a 20-centimeter high passage, which led them to 3,432 m (11,257 ft) of unexplored cave. The total surveyed passage now stands at 6,083 meters (19,952 ft or 3.78 miles) making Grand Caverns the 215th longest surveyed cave in the U.S. as of 7 May 2008. The newly discovered portion of cave (closed to the public) is highly decorated with many forms of speleothems, including the celebrated shields. The passages to the north are fairly dry with abundant brilliant white formations, earning them the name "New Mexico". The southern portion of the new cave includes a series of large rooms with massive breakdown, the largest of which ("Kentucky") is over 100 m long by 40 m wide. The highest and lowest points in the cave are found in the new passage.
The cave is developed in Cambrian limestone/dolomite, and is known for its abundance of shield formations. It is also replete with stalactites, stalagmites, columns (where stalactites and stalagmites meet), draperies and other flowstone formations. The most stately room, "Cathedral Hall", is 28- feet long and over 70 feet (21 m) high. It is one of the largest rooms of any cavern in the Eastern United States. Other sights include "Bridal Veil", "Stonewall Jackson's Horse", the "Tapestry Room", and "Dante's Inferno".
Every Halloween, Grand Caverns morphs into the Haunted Cave. Workers decorate the cave with various holiday-specific items before dressing up themselves for tourists. The Caverns also host an annual bluegrass festival.
<a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand Caverns' target='_blank' rel='nofollow' style='font-size: 90%'>Text of this article is based on Wikipedia article «Grand Caverns»</a>