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Ibelin
Ibelin — CarmelH

31.87640˚, 34.73810˚

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Address
Mish'ol HaGuyava 31, Yavne, Israel
Coordinates
31.87640, 34.73810
N31°52'35", E34°44'17"

Ibelin

Ibelin was a castle in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century (at modern Yavne, 31°49′12″N 34°42′47″E / 31.820°N 34.713°E / 31.820; 34.713), which gave its name to an important family of nobles.

Ibelin was a castle in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century (at modern Yavne, 31°49′12″N 34°42′47″E / 31.820°N 34.713°E / 31.820; 34.713), which gave its name to an important family of nobles.

The castle

The site of Ibelin had been occupied since ancient times; the Romans called it Iamnia. The crusader castle was built in 1141 between Jaffa and Ascalon, near Montgisard and Ramla. At that time Ascalon was still controlled by Fatimid Egypt, and Egyptian armies marched out every year from Ascalon to attack the crusader kingdom. Ibelin was constructed in order to contain these attacks to a smaller area. The original castle, built by King Fulk of Jerusalem, had four towers.

The family: first and second generations

The Ibelin family rose from relatively humble origins to become one of the most important noble families in the Crusader states of Jerusalem and Cyprus. The family claimed to be descended from the Le Puiset viscounts of Chartres, but this appears to be a later fabrication. They were more probably from Pisa Italy, the name 'Barisan' being found in Tuscany and Liguria related to Azzopardi family. Its first known member Barisan was apparently a knight in service of the Count of Jaffa and in the 1110s became constable of Jaffa. As reward for his capable and loyal service, around 1122 he married Helvis, heiress of the nearby lordship of Ramla.

Barisan was given the castle of Ibelin in 1141 by King Fulk as a reward for his loyalty during the revolt of his then master Hugh II of Le Puiset, Count of Jaffa, in 1134. Ibelin was part of County of Jaffa, which was annexed to the royal domain after Hugh's unsuccessful revolt. Barisan's marriage with Helvis produced Hugh, Baldwin, Barisan, Ermengarde, and Stephanie. The younger Barisan came to be known as Balian. Along with Ibelin, the family then held Ramla (inherited from Helvis), and the youngest son Balian received the lordship of Nablus when he married Maria Comnena, the Dowager Queen. Balian was the last to hold these territories as they all fell to Saladin in 1187.

The family underwent a remarkable rise in status in only two generations. In the circumstances of the crusader kingdom, this rapid rise, noblesse nouvelle, was not as difficult as it would have been in Europe. In Crusader Palestine, individuals and whole families tended to die much sooner and replacements, sang nouveau, were needed.

The 13th century Ibelins

Balian's descendants were among the most powerful nobles in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus. Balian's first son John of Ibelin, the "Old Lord of Beirut", was the leader of the opposition to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, when the emperor tried to impose imperial authority over the crusader states. The family briefly regained control of the castle of Ibelin in 1241 in the aftermath of Frederick's Sixth Crusade, when certain territories were returned to the Christians by treaty. John had numerous children with Melisende of Arsuf, including Balian, lord of Beirut; Baldwin, seneschal of Cyprus; another John, lord of Arsuf and constable of Jerusalem; and Guy, constable of Cyprus. This Balian was married to Eschiva of Montbéliard and was the father of John II of Beirut, who married the daughter of Guy I of la Roche, duke of Athens. John of Arsuf was the father of Balian of Arsuf, who married Plaisance of Antioch. Guy the constable was the father of Isabella, who married Hugh III of Cyprus.

Balian of Ibelin's second son Philip was regent of Cyprus while his niece, the widowed Queen Alice, needed help to govern. With Alice of Montbéliard, Philip was the father of John of Ibelin, count of Jaffa and Ascalon, regent of Jerusalem, and author of the Assizes of the Haute Cour of Jerusalem, the most important legal document from the crusader kingdom. John married Maria, sister of Hethum I of Armenia, and was the father of James, count of Jaffa and Ascalon and also a noted jurist; and of Guy, count of Jaffa and Ascalon and husband of his cousin Maria, Hethum's daughter.

Several members of the family went to the new kingdom of Cyprus at the beginning of the 13th century. Most of the rest moved there as the mainland kingdom was lost piece by piece. No members of the Ibelin family seem to have gone to any other country during this period. At this time, some of the Embriaco lords of Gibelet, relatives of the Ibelins, also took the name of "Ibelin" because of their common maternal descent.

Despite the family's modest origins on the paternal side, the Ibelins during the 13th–15th centuries were among the highest nobility in the Kingdom of Cyprus, producing brides for younger sons, grandsons and brothers of kings (though the kings and eldest sons tended to find more royal wives). As some of these cadet princes unexpectedly rose to the kingship, Ibelin daughters were sometimes queens. Ibelins lived among and married into the highest circles of Cyprus, among such families as Montfort, Dampierre, ducal Brunswick, (Antioch-)Lusignan, Montbeliard, and Gibelet(-Ibelins). They married also into other branches of Ibelins. They also had loftier ancestors: Maria Comnena was from the Byzantine imperial Comnenus dynasty, and was descended from the kings of Georgia, Bulgaria, ancient Armenia, Parthia, Persia and Syria.

When the Kingdom of Cyprus was destroyed in the 15th century, the Ibelins apparently also lost their lands and positions (and the family possibly went extinct) — the sources, at least, no longer mention them. Descendants of the Ibelins, through the royal family of Cyprus, include several royal families of modern Europe, since their descendant Anne, Duchess of Savoy, daughter of Janus of Cyprus, was, for example, the ancestor of the Dukes of Savoy, the La Tremoille princes of Talmond and Taranto, the Longueville family, the princes of Monaco, the electors of Bavaria, the Farnese of Parma, the last Valois kings of France, the Dukes of Lorraine, the Habsburg-Lorraines, the Bourbons of Navarre and France, and, as their progeny, practically all Catholic royalty in recent centuries.

Lords of Ibelin

  • Barisan of Ibelin (c. 1134–1150)
  • Hugh of Ibelin (1150-1170)
  • Baldwin of Ibelin (inherited Ibelin in 1170, but passed it to Balian)
  • Balian of Ibelin (1170-1193)
  • John of Ibelin (1193–1236)
  • Afterwards held directly by the Counts of Jaffa and Ascalon

Family tree

  • Barisan of Ibelin (d. 1152) m. Helvis of Ramla
    • Hugh of Ibelin (c. 1130-1133 – 1169/1171) m. Agnes of Courtenay
    • Baldwin of Ibelin (early 1130s – c. 1187 or 1186/1188) m. 1. Richilde of Bethsan, 2. Isabelle Gothman, 3. Maria of Tripoli
      • Thomas of Ibelin (before 1175 – c. 1188)
      • Eschiva of Ibelin (c. 1160 – 1196/1197) m. Amalric of Lusignan
        • Bourgogne (1180 – 1210), m. 1. Raymond VI of Toulouse, 2. Gautier II de Montfaucon
        • Guy, died young
        • Jean, died young
        • Hugh I of Cyprus (1194/1195 – 1218) m. Alice of Champagne
          • Marie of Lusignan (before 1215 – c. 1252 or 1254) m. Walter IV of Brienne
            • Hugh of Brienne (c. 1240 – 1296) m. 1. Isabella of La Roche, 2. Helena Komnene Dukaina
              • Walter V of Brienne (c. 1275 – 1311) m. Jeanne de Châtillon
                • Walter VI of Brienne (c. 1304 – 1356) m. 1. Margaret of Taranto, 2. Jeanne of Brienne
                  • Jeanne
                  • Marguerite
                • Isabella of Brienne (1306 – 1360), married Walter III of Enghien
                  • descendants in Enghien, Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Duchy of Ferrara, Duchy of Mantua, etc
              • Agnes of Brienne m. John, Count of Joigny
              • Joanna of Brienne m. Niccolo Sanudo
          • Isabella of Antioch (1216 – 1264) m. Henry of Antioch
            • Hugh III of Cyprus (1235 – 1284) m. Isabella of Ibelin
              • John II of Jerusalem (died 1285)
              • Bohemond de Lusignan (ca 1268 – 1281)
              • Henry II of Jerusalem (1271 – 1324) m. Constanza of Sicily
              • Amalric, Prince of Tyre (died 1310) m. Isabelle, Princess of Armenia
                • Hugues de Lusignan (d. 1318/1323) m. Eschive of Ibelin
                • Henri de Lusignan (d. 1323)
                • Guy de Lusignan (d. 1344) m. 1. Kantakuzene, 2. Theodora Syrgiannaina
                  • Isabella de Lusignan (c. 1333 – 1382/1387) m. Manuel Kantakouzenos
                • Jean de Lusignan (d. 1343) m. Sultana of Georgia
                  • Bohemond de Lusignan (died 1364)
                  • Leon VI of Armenia (illegitimate) m. Margaret of Soissons
                    • Marie de Lusignan (c. 1370-1381)
                    • Guy de Lusignan (d. 1405) (illegitimate)
                    • Etienne de Lusignan (illegitimate)
                • Bohémond de Lusignan (d. 1344) m. Euphemia of Neghir
                  • Barthelemy de Lusignan (d. after 1373) (illegitimate)
                • Agnes (Marie) de Lusignan (d. aft. 1309) m. Levon III of Armenia
              • Marie de Lusignan (1273 – 1322) m. James II of Aragon
              • Aimery de Lusignan (1274/1280 – 1316)
              • Guy de Lusignan (1275/1280 – 1303) m. Eschive of Ibelin
                • Hugh IV of Cyprus (c. 1295 – 1359) m. 1. Maria of Ibelin, 2. Alice of Ibelin
                  • Guy de Lusignan (c. 1316 – 1343) m. Marie de Bourbon
                    • Hughues de Lusignan (1335 – 1385/1386) m. Maria of Morphou
                  • Eschive de Lusignan (c. 1323 – 1363) m. Fernando of Majorca
                  • Peter I of Cyprus (1328 – 1369) m. 1. Eschive de Montfort, 2. Leonor de Gandia
                    • Peter II of Cyprus (c. 1357 – 1382) m. Valentina Visconti
                    • Marguerite or Marie de Lusignan (c. 1360 – c. 1397) m. Jacques de Lusignan
                    • Eschive de Lusignan (d. before 1369)
                  • John of Lusignan (c. 1329 – 1375) m. 1. Constance of Sicily, 2. Alice of Ibelin
                    • Jacques de Lusignan (d. 1395/1397) m. Marguerite or Marie de Lusignan
                      • Jean de Lusignan (d. 1428/1432)
                      • Pierre de Lusignan (d. 1451) m. Isabelle de Lusignan
                        • Phoebus de Lusignan (illegitimate)
                      • Eleonore de Lusignan (d. c. 1414) m. Henri de Lusignan
                      • Loysia de Lusignan m. Eudes de Lusignan
                  • James I of Cyprus (1334 – 1398) m. Helvis of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
                    • Janus of Cyprus (1375 – 1432) m. 1. Anglesia Visconti, 2. Charlotte de Bourbon-La Marche
                      • John II of Cyprus (1418 – 1458) m. 1. Amadea Palaiologina of Montferrat, 2. Helene Palaiologina
                        • Charlotte of Cyprus (1442/1443 – 1487) m. 1. John of Portugal, 2. Louis of Savoy, Count of Geneva
                        • Cleopha de Lusignan
                      • Jacques de Lusignan (d. c. 1426)
                      • Anne de Lusignan (c. 1415/1419 – 1462) m. Louis of Savoy
                        • descendents in the Duchy of Savoy
                      • Marie de Lusignan (d. 1437)
                      • Aloysius de Lusignan (1408 – 1421) (illegitimate)
                      • Guy de Lusignan (d. after 1433) (illegitimate) m. Isabelle Babin
                        • Jacqua de Lusignan (b. 1432)
                        • Eleonore de Lusignan (b. 1433)
                      • unknown daughter, m. Garceran Suarez de los Cernadilla
                    • Philippe de Lusignan (d. c. 1430)
                      • Lancelot de Lusignan (d. after 1450)
                    • Henry of Lusignan (d. 1427) m. Eleonore de Lusignan
                    • Eudes de Lusignan (d. 1421) m. Loysia de Lusignan
                    • Hugues Lancelot de Lusignan (d. 1442)
                    • Guy de Lusignan
                    • unknown daughter (d. 1374)
                    • Jacqua de Lusignan (d. c. 1397)
                    • Eschive de Lusignan (d. after 1406) m. Sclavus von Asperg
                    • Marie of Lusignan (1381 – 1404) m. Ladislas of Naples
                    • Agnes de Lusignan (c. 1382 – 1459)
                    • Isabelle de Lusignan m. Pierre de Lusignan
                  • Thomas de Lusignan (d. 1340)
                  • Perrot de Lusignan (d. 1353)
                  • Marguerite de Lusignan, m. Gautier de Dampierre
                • Isabelle de Lusignan (1296/1300 – after 1340) m. Eudes de Dampierre
              • Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1276 – 1296) m. Thoros III of Armenia
                • Levon III of Armenia (c. 1287 – 1307) m. Agnes de Lusignan
              • Alice de Lusignan (1277/1280 – 1324) m. Balian of Ibelin
              • Helvis de Lusignan (died 1324) m. Hethum II of Armenia
              • Isabelle de Lusignan (c. 1280 – 1319) m. 1. Constantine of Neghir, 2. Oshin of Armenia
          • Henry I of Cyprus (1217 – 1253) m. 1. Alix of Montferrat, 2. Stephanie of Lampron, 3. Plaisance of Antioch
            • Hugh II of Cyprus (1252/1253 – 1267)
        • Helvis, married Raymond-Roupen of Antioch
          • Maria of Antioch (1215 – ?) m. Philip of Montfort
            • Jean de Montfort (died 1283) m. Marguerite de Lusignan
            • Humphrey of Montfort (died 1284) m. Eschive d'Ibelin
              • Amaury of Montfort (died 1304)
              • Rupen of Montfort (died 1313)
              • a son
              • Alix or Helvis, living in 1295
            • Alix, living in 1282 and in 1295
            • Helvis, living in 1282 and in 1295
        • Alix, died young
      • Stephanie of Ibelin m. Amalric, Viscount of Nablus
    • Balian of Ibelin (early 1140s – 1193) m. Maria Comnena
      • Helvis of Ibelin m. 1. Reginald of Sidon, 2. Guy of Montfort.
        • Agnes m. Ralph of Tiberias
        • Fenie (Euphemia) m. Eudes of Tiberias
        • Balian (d. 1241) m. Margaret of Brienne
          • Julian Grenier (d. 1275) m. Euphemia of Armenia
            • Balian II Grenier (d. 1277)
            • John (d. 1289)
            • Margaret m. Guy II Embriaco
        • Philip of Montfort
      • John of Ibelin (c. 1179 – 1236) m. 1. Helvis of Nephin, 2. Melisende of Arsuf
        • Balian of Beirut (d. 1247)
          • John II of Beirut (d. 1264)
            • Isabelle d'Ibelin (1252 – 1282) m. 1. Hugh II of Cyprus, 2. Haymo Letrange, 3. Nicholas Laleman, 4. Guillaume Berlais
            • Eschive d'Ibelin (1253 – 1312) m. 1. Humphrey of Montfort, 2. Guy of Lusignan
              • Amaury of Montfort (d. 1304)
              • Rupen of Montfort (d. 1313)
              • Alix of Montfort
              • Helvis of Montfort
              • Hugh IV of Cyprus (c. 1295 – 1359) m. 1. Marie d'Ibelin, 2. Alice d'Ibelin (see above)
              • Isabella of Lusignan (1298 – 1330) m. Eudes de Dampierre
        • John of Arsuf (c. 1211 – 1258) m. Alice of Haifa
          • Balian of Arsuf (1239 – 1277) m. 1. Plaisance of Antioch, w.o. issue 2. ca 1261 Lucy of Chenechy
            • John of Ibelin, (d. 1309) m. aft. 1300 Isabel of Ibelin
              • Guy of Ibelin
              • Balian of Ibelin (d. c. 1338) m. c. 1320 Margaret of Ibelin
                • Philip d'Ibelin, (d. 1374/6) m. 1. Eschiva of Dampierre 2. c. 1355 Alice (d. aft. 1376) daughter of Ferdinand of Majorca
                • Guy of Ibelin (d. 1367)
                • Thomas of Ibelin (d. aft. 1361)
                • John of Ibelin
                • Maria of Ibelin (d. aft. 1357) m. 1. c. 1340 Hugh of Dampierre-sur-Salon 2. c. 1349 John of Ibelin (d. aft. 1357)
                • Simone of Ibelin (d. aft. 1350) m. 1. c. 1355 Baldwin of Nores 1. John Babin
                • Margaret of Ibelin (d. aft. 1353) m. Balian of Ibelin
              • Margaret of Ibelin m. c. 1323 Balian of Ibelin
              • Lucy of Ibelin m. 1. c. 1332 Baldwin of Milmars 2. c. 1334 Raymond du Four
              • Alice of Ibelin
            • Joan of Ibelin m. Baldwin of Morf
            • Nicole of Ibelin, (d. c. 1300) m. Thibaut of Bessan
            • Ermeline of Ibelin
        • Hugh of Ibelin (1213 – 1238)
        • Baldwin of Ibelin (d. 1266) m. Alix of Bethsan
          • John m. Isabelle Rivet
            • Baldwin m. Marguerite de Giblet
              • Isabella († 1315), m. her cousin Guy (1286 † 1308)
                • Alice m. Hugh IV of Cyprus
          • Philip
          • Guy m. Maria of Armenia
          • Balian m. Marguerite Visconte
          • Hugh (d. 1315)
          • Melisende, died young
        • Guy of Ibelin m. Philippa Berlais
          • Baldwin
          • Jean (d. 1277)
          • Aimery
          • Balian (1240 – 1302) m. Alice de Lampron
            • Guy m. his cousin Isabella
              • Alice m. Hugh IV of Cyprus
          • Philip of Ibelin (1253 – 1318) m. 1. c. 1280 Maria, daughter of Vahran of Hanousse by Maria of Ibelin, w.o. issue; 2. c 1295 Maria of Giblet (d. 1331)
            • John of Ibelin, (b. 1302, d. aft. 1317)
            • Guy of Ibelin (d. c 1360) m. c. 1319 Margaret of Ibelin
              • John of Ibelin
              • Alice of Ibelin, (d. aft. 1373) m. c. 1350 John of Lusignan (d. 1375)
              • Margaret of Ibelin
            • Balian of Ibelin, (d. aft. 1349) m. c. 1323 Margaret of Ibelin
            • Isabella of Ibelin, (b.1300, d. aft. 1342) m. 1. 1316 Fernando of Majorca (d. 1316); 2. c. 1320 Hugh of Ibelin
            • Helvis of Ibelin, (b. 1307, d. aft. 1347) m. 1330 Duke Heinrich von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (d. 1351)
          • Isabella of Ibelin (1241 – 1324) m. Hugh III of Cyprus (see above)
          • Alice m. Eudes de Dampierre sur Salon
          • Eschive
          • Melisende
          • Marie
      • Margaret, m. 1. Hugh of Saint-Omer, 2. Walter of Caesarea.
      • Philip of Ibelin, m. Alice of Montbéliard
        • John of Ibelin (1215 – 1266) m. Maria of Barbaron
          • James (c. 1240 – 1276) m. Marie of Montbéliard
          • Philip (d. aft. 1263)
          • Guy (c. 1250 – 1304) m. Marie, Lady of Naumachia
            • Philip of Ibelin (d. 1316)
              • Hugh of Ibelin (d. aft. 1335)
            • Hugh of Ibelin (d. c 1349); m. 1320 Isabellla of Ibelin (died after 1342)
              • Balian of Ibelin (d. c 1352)
              • Guy of Ibelin (d. c 1363); m. N.
                • Balian of Ibelin; m.1352 Marguerite of Ibelin
                  • John of Ibelin (d. c 1375)
                  • Maria of Ibelin; m. ca 1358 Reinier Le Petit
              • Balian of Ibelin, (b. 1302), m. 1. 1322 Jeannette of Montfort (d. c 1325) 2. 1325 Margaret du Four
              • Maria of Ibelin, (b. 1294, d. before 1318), m.1307/10 Hugh IV of Cyprus
          • John (d. aft. 1263)
          • Hethum
          • Oshin
          • Margaret (c. 1245 – aft. 1317)
          • Isabelle (c. 1250 – aft. 1298) married Sempad of Saravantikar
          • Marie (d. aft. 1298) m. 1. Vahran of Hanousse, 2. Gregorios Tardif
    • Ermengarde of Ibelin (d. 1160/1167)
    • Stephanie of Ibelin (d. after 1167)

References

  • William of Tyre (1943), A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey, Columbia University Press 
  • Edbury, Peter W. (1997), John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Boydell Press 
  • Mayer, H. E. (1982), "Carving Up Crusaders: The Early Ibelins and Ramlas", Outremer: Studies in the history of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer (Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute) 
  • Nielen-Vandervoorde, Marie-Adélaïde (2003), Lignages d'Outremer, Documents relatifs à l'histoire des Croisades, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, ISBN 287754141X 
  • Rüdt de Collenberg, W. H. (1977-1979), "Les Ibelin aux XIIIe et XIVe siècles", Επετηρίς Κέντρου Επιστημονικών Ερευνών Κύπρου 9 
  • Rüdt de Collenberg, W. H. (1983), Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles, Variorum reprints, pp. 117-265 , reprint of article Les Ibelin aux XIIIe et XIVe siècles.
  • Runciman, Steven (1951-1953), A History of the Crusades, Cambridge University Press 

External links

See also

  • Officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
  • Officers of the Kingdom of Cyprus

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